On the Chalcolithic plant economy of the Hârşova-tell settlement (Romania): recent archaeobotanical results

Cercetări Arheologice 27, 2020, 305-319
https://doi.org/10.46535/ca.27.13



On the Chalcolithic plant economy of the Hârşova-tell settlement (Romania): recent archaeobotanical results


Authors: Roman Hovsepyan Ramon Buxó Capdevila Dragomir Nicolae-Popovici

Keywords:

archaeobotany, Romania, Boian, Gumelniţa, Cernavodă, Chalcolithic, einkorn

Abstract:

Numerous remains of cultivated plants were recovered from the Boian, Gumelniţa and Cernavodă culture archaeological sediments of the Hârșova-tell, situated on the right bank of the Danube River. The archaeological stratigraphy here represents all Copper Age evolution in this region (Boian, Hamangia, Gumelniţa and Cernavodă I cultures (5th millennium BC)). These archaeobotanical findings give evidence that agriculture was an important direction of the agrarian economy of the local Chalcolithic population. The charred and in some cases mineralized archaeocarpological material recovered and investigated attests to the cultivation of several cereals and pulses: einkorn (Triticum monococcum), emmer (T. dicoccum), bread wheat (T. aestivum), spelt wheat (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), Timopheev’s wheat (Triticum timopheevii), naked barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum), lentil (Lens culinaris), bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia), and common pea (Pisum sativum). This assemblage of cultivated cereals and pulses, where hulled wheats, particularly einkorn, and naked barley prevail, is common for the Chalcolithic period of south-eastern Europe. A regular abundance of pulses is notable, as the cultivation of pulses drops somewhat in this period in the Near East and Caucasus. In addition to the cultivation of cereals and pulses, viticulture (or use of wild grape) was practiced. Edible fruits, nuts and seeds (maybe herbs as well?) were also gathered and consumed.

Download: PDF


How to cite: Roman Hovsepyan, Ramon Buxó Capdevila, Dragomir-Nicolae Popovici, On the Chalcolithic plant economy of the Hârşova-tell settlement (Romania): recent archaeobotanical results, Cercetări Arheologice, Vol. 27, pag. 305-319, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.46535/ca.27.13


Bibliography


  1. Cârciumaru, M., Paleoetnobotanica, Studii în preistoria şi protoistoria României (Istoria agriculturii din România) [Palaeoethnobotany, Researches in the praehistory and the protohistory of Romania (History of agriculture in Romania)], Iaşi, Helios, 1996.
  2. Cârciumaru, M.. Neolithic palaeoethnobotany of Romania, Cercetări Archeologice, 11(2), 2000, 577-581.
  3. Galbenu, D., Așezarea neolitică de la Hârșova, Studii şi cercetări de istorie veche, 12(2), 1962, 285-304.
  4. Jacomet, S., Identification of cereal remains from archaeological sites, 2nd ed., Basel: Basel University. (Accessed December 30, 2015) https://ipna.unibas.ch/archbot/pdf/Cereal_Id_Manual_engl.pdf, 2006.
  5. Marinescu-Bîlcu, S., Cârciumaru, M., Colliers de Lithospermum purpureo-coeruleum et de „perles” de cerf dans le contexte Central et Sud-Est Europeen, Prehistoire Europeenne, 2, 1992, 70-88.
  6. Monah, F., Rapport préliminaire sur les macrorestes végétales du Complexe ménagere 521 – le tell énéolithique Hârşova (dép. de Constanza), Cercetări Arheologice, 11(1), 2000, 66-74.
  7. Monah, F., Analiza macroresturilor vegetale din stațiunile calcolitice de la Luncavița și Isaccea, Arheologia Moldovei, 28, 2005, 357-362.
  8. Monah, F., Nouvelles déterminations archéobotaniques pour la Romanie, Arheologia Moldovei, 30, 2007, 333-342.
  9. Monah, F.. The spread of cultivated plants in the region between Carpathians and Dniester, 6th/4th millennia BC, in S. Colledge S., Conolly J. (eds.), The origin and spread of domestic plants in Southwest Asia and Europe, Walnut Creek, Ca, Left Coast Press, 2007, 111-125.
  10. Popovici, D.N.. Copper Age traditions North of the Danube River. In The Lost World of Old Europe. The Danube Valley, 5000-3500 BC: 90-111, New York, P.U.P., 2010.
  11. Popovici, D., Randoin, B., Rialland, Y., Voinea, V., Vlad, F., Bem, C., Haită, G., Les recherches archeologiques du tell de Hârșova (dep. de Constanța), 1997-1998, Cercetări Arheologice, 11(1), 2000, 13-124.
  12. Popovici, D., Randoin, B., Rialland, Y., Le tell néolithique et chalcolithique d’Hârşova (Roumanie), in Guilaine J. (ed.), Communautés villageoises du Proche-Orient à l’Atlantique (8000-2000 avant notre ère), Paris, Éditions Errance, 2001, 119–152.
  13. Popovici, D.N., Randoin, B., Cernău, I., Cernea, C., Ilie, A., Haită, C., Bălăşescu, A., Radu, V., Mărgărit, M., Niţu, L. and Hovsepyan, R., Programul de colaborare româno- francez de la Hârşova-tell, jud. Constanța. Campania 2013. Cercetări Arheologice 21, 2014, 25-54.
  14. Schier, W., Draşovean, F., Vorbericht über die rumänisch-deutschen Prospektionen und Ausgrabungen in der befestigten Tellsiedlung von Uivar, jud. Timiș, Rumänien (1998- 2002), Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 79, 2004, 145-230.
  15. Zohary, D., Hopf, M., Weiss, E., Domestication of Plants in the Old World, 4th edition, New York, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License