Civilii şi armata romană. Lixae şi calones

Cercetări Arheologice 16, 2009, 295-304
https://doi.org/10.46535/ca.16.14



Civilii şi armata romană. Lixae şi calones

Civilians and the Roman Army. Lixae and calones

Authors: Gabriel–Iulian Stoian

Keywords:

armată romană, civili, sclavi, lixae, calones

Roman Army; civilians; slaves; lixae; calones

Abstract:

Although the Roman army is often described as a rigid structure, following strict discipline and organization, the literary sources mention different sorts of civilians, who interfere with the military life, especially lixae and calones, oftentimes mentioned together. Regarding the first group (lixae), this study strives to understand their function in relation to the army. Generally, lixae were an etherogeneous group, gathering all sorts of people, but chiefly merchants following the army in search for profit. The epigraphic evidence presents lixae as being attached to different Roman units and therefore it is necessary to determine their status in relation to the soldiers and whether they could be placed among army’s ranks. Another issue is represented by their social status, as both the primary sources and the related scholarship presents them as free men or servants. Regarding the second group, calones, their status is undoubtedly of servile nature. Mentioned especially in relation to the baggage train, their function seems a little more complex and varied, as they freed the soldier of many of his daily duties. Excepting their logistical function, analyzing the testimonies regarding calones will also reveal a military role: in exceptional cases, they were used by the Roman commanders as the last reserve of the army or as maneuver troops. The size of the group is also marked by incertitude, but the most convenient figure seems to be a ratio of one calo for every four soldiers.

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How to cite: Gabriel Iulian Stoian, Civilii şi armata romană. Lixae şi calones, Cercetări Arheologice, Vol. 16, pag. 295-304, 2009, doi: https://doi.org/10.46535/ca.16.14


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