Cercetări Arheologice 12, 2003, 45-58
Raport de cercetare arheologică pe anii 2001-2003 la Orașul de Floci (com. Giurgeni, jud. Ialomița)
The current paper presents a part of the archaeological researches performed between 2001 and 2003 at the archaeological site from Oraşul de Floci (Piua Petri point, Giurgeni, Ialomiţa County), on the sand bank no. 3, with a special focus on the medieval necropolis. A total number of six dwellings dating back from the XVth – XVIIth centuries were partially studied. Two inhabiting levels were also discoovered, one previous and the other subsequent to the necropolis. In the initial phase, the sand bank was probably not inhabited, but used as a clay extraction source. In a second phase it was adorned in several stages with a brown, rough earth over which the dwellinmgs were subsequently built. The first inhabiting level (from bottom upwards) consists of remnants of no. 2 and no. 6 dwellings. After their abandonment, above these complexes lay dwellings 4 and 5, both destroyed by fire. After their burning, probably by the and of the XVth Century or beginning of the XVIth Century this area was used as a necropolis. The inhabitance previous to the necropolis level can be relatively well dated by a Milletus type pottery fragment (this type pottery had been manufactured only before 1470). The necropolis functioned, according to the existing data, till the XVIIth Century. One of the dating elements of the necropolis is a coin discovered in a grave level. This coin was issued during Bayezid II (1481-1512). The inhabiting level subsequent to the end of the necropolis can be dated mainly using several pottery fragments manufactured at Iznik in the second phase (post 1525), a pipe fragment and an ear ring (discovered in the area of dwelling no. 1) dating back from the XVIIth Century. Burial rite and ritual Burial was the rite from the sand bank no. 3 necropolis burial, at least as shown by existing data. The burial ritual was Christian, with a East – West general orientation, with eventual South-East or North-West deviations due to the season when the burial took place. Out of the 25 studied graves, 12 of them contained a coffin (M. 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50-?, 52, 53, 60). In the case of M50 we cannot be sure whtether the body was deposed in a coffin or not. Out of these, two belonged to children (M.41 and M.45) and nine to adults. In the case of M. 47, it is hard to precise whether it belonged to a child or an adult. A child was discovered also in M. 50. In one case, M. 54, we observed that the reburial was practised. Double burials or of a pregnant woman was observed at M. 43. Here, bone fragments belonging to a child were discovered in the pelvian area. In what regards the positions of the deceased, we observed that most of them were laid on their backs. The exceptions are only the disturbed graves and M. 55, laid on the belly. The deceased arms` positions are: a hand by the body and the other with the hand on the pelvis (AB)-M.42, with both arms along the body, and hands on the pelvis (B)-M. 43, 44, with a hand on the pelvis and the other on the abdomen (BC)-M.60, with arms flexed from the elbow and hands on the abdomen (C)-M. 50, 52, 53, an arm on the abdomen and the other on the thorax (CD)-M. 56, an arm on the abdomen and the other flexed from the elbow, with the hand lain on the clavicula (CE)-M. 49, arms flexed from the elbow and hands on the thorax (D)-M. 41, arms flexed from the elbow and hands on the clavicles (E)-M. 46. In the case of M. 48 we established the position of only one arm, with the hand on the clavicle (EX).
The high variety of arm positions of the deceased is a characteristic of the medieval period, especially in the territories from the Northern part of the Lower Danube. The legs of the deceased were generally stretched and parallel. There are nevertheless several exceptions. M.41, where the femurs formed towards the knees an orthogonal angle, makes me think that the body was deposed having its legs crossed. In the case of M.43, legs were deposed being very closely grouped in the knees` area, while the lower parts were again distanced towards the feet. M. 60 had the right leg flexed from the knee towards the exterior and the left stretched. M. 8/2002 was possibly deposed with the legs slightly flexed from the knee towards the left, but this was the position only of the left leg, as the right was completely disturbed. Fragments of burnt wood were discovered in several graves. Unfortunately, due to the fact that several graves cut an inhabiting level containing also burnt wood, we cannot be certain if the discovery is the sign of intended practices or was simply included in the grave during the digging. The second hypothesis is the most probable. Funeral inventory Out of the 25 graves researched during the last three campaigns, 11 contained a funeral inventory. This inventory is nevertheless relatively poor and consists of costume pieces (a buckle and several buttons made of silver leaflet) and hands adornments (three rings). Costume pieces 1. The buckle was manufactured in iron. It is a typical piece for necropoles along the Danube basin. Such pieces were also discovered at Branicevo and Cladova (Arad County). They had a wide circulation in time and can be dated also from the the XVth Century. 2. Globular buttons made of silver leaflets are frequent pieces for such necropoles. Some pieces have a hole in their upper part. They were attached by a small handle made of silver wire The pieces are worked in two hemispheres welded one to the other. Here these were dated back to the XVIIth Century. Adornment pieces 1. Ring made of a twisted silver wire to whom a rhomboidal-shaped chaton was welded. Such pieces were dated at the Oraşul de Floci as being from the XVIth Century as well as the first half of the XVIIth Century. At Enisala, pieces with similar manufacturing features were dated from the last two decades of the XVth Century and from the first two decades of the XVIth Century. 2. Ring made of wire (probably silver) with a welded chaton in the shape of a pill. The link has a circular section. 3. Silver ring manufactured by moulding. The chaton has a casket placed to fix a stone socket (have discovered). The chaton has a circular shape and has its outer part decorated with vegetal motifs. The link is triangular and was decorated. Because of the existing stratigraphic situation and of the pieces recovered from the first inhabiting level (Miletus type pottery, whose manufacture stopped in 1470), as well as from the graves (rings, buttons) or near them (coin issued in the time of Bayezid II), I presume that the necropolis can be dated since the end of the XVth Century – beginning of the XVIth Century till the XVIIth Century. V. Rădulescu and A. Păunescu mention the drilling by the graves of an inhabiting level dating from the beginning of the XVIth Century, using a coin issued in the time of Ferdinand Ist, in the year 1530. The fact that no graves have been discovered in the 1/2003 area may prove that this was the graveyard`s Northern limit. The inhabitance was resumed after the abandonment of the necropolis, sometime during the second half of the XVIIth Century (towards its end). The pieces that confirm this fact are the ring discovered in the area of dwelling 1/2002 and the pipe. Both pieces can be dated back to ther before mentioned period. More evidence is given by several Iznik Second Phase pottery fragments, that can be dated as post 1525. These fragments were discovered in the upper part of a domestic waste dump hole, from the level above the one with the burials. These fragments belong to cups and plates and are decorated with green and blue vegetal motifs.
How to cite: Radu Coman, Elena Rența, Gh. Matei, Silviu Oța, Raport de cercetare arheologică pe anii 2001-2003 la Orașul de Floci (com. Giurgeni, jud. Ialomița), Cercetări Arheologice, Vol. 12, pag. 45-58, 2003, doi: https://doi.org/10.46535/ca.12.11
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